Extending the Business-to-Business (B2B) Model Towards a Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Model for Telemonitoring Patients with Chronic Heart Failure (CHF)

Andrija S. Grustam, Hubertus J.M. Vrijhoef, Ron Koymans, Vasilis Poulikidis and Johan L. Severens


Telemonitoring; Chronic Heart Failure; Business Model; B2B; B2C;


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe an alternative approach to telemonitoring patients suffering
from Chronic Heart Failure (CHF), i.e. the Business-to-Consumer model (B2C), by extending the current
Business-to-Business model (B2B). The B2C model is the one where the customer, in this case the patient, is
the payer for the services consumed. We describe and perform an initial evaluation of the extension of the B2B
to the B2C model for telemonitoring patients with CHF.

Design/Methodology/Approach: We explored the problems in implementation of telemonitoring via the B2B
model by means of a Root Cause Analysis, including the 5-whys method to help us understand the shortcomings
of the B2B approach, and then the 5W1H method to explore whether the B2C is a better strategy. The
extension of the model was executed in the Business Model Generation framework. By using qualitative content
analysis techniques we supported our argumentation with findings from other studies.

Findings: The B2C model is based on the interplay of four agents – Healthcare Provider, Equipment Manufacturer,
Payer/Regulator and Distributor/Promotor – all working together to improve health related outcomes in
a jurisdiction. The success of the extended model in telemonitoring CHF hinges on Telemonitoring Center and
Telehealth Nurses being repositioned in the out-of-the hospital setting.

Social implications: We believe that penetration of mobile telehealth via the B2C model will allow for greater
availability, access and equity in healthcare for patients with CHF.

Originality/Value: We introduced a fourth pillar to the existing B2B model, i.e. Distributors and/or Promotors.
The B2C model we propose does not exist currently but might allow for scalability, generalizability and transferability
of telemonitoring currently unattained with the B2B model.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.5278/ojs.jbm.v6i3.1596