Business Model Development: A Customer-Oriented Perspective

Bernd W. Wirtz and Peter Daiser


Business model; customer; innovation; development; framework


Purpose: This study provides a business model development framework that explicitly focuses on the customer as
well as integrating customer knowledge into the development process for enhanced value creation. The proposed
framework shall enhance our understanding about this phenomenon and present a helpful guidance for researchers
and practitioners.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The study follows a conceptual approach that is based on insights from prevailing
literature. The deduced findings are illustrated with supplementary context from a prominent case study.

Findings: The findings underline the importance of customer-orientation for successful business model development.
Furthermore, business model development should follow an actively managed, systematic approach that takes into
account distinctive customer groups, business model change intensity, and business model development types. The
presented framework provides fruitful avenues for future research and valuable guidance for management.
Practical Implications: The presented framework provides managers with a tool to plan and organize their business
model development process.

Research limitations: Given the vast amount of academic journals, it is unlikely that every applicable scientific
publication is included in the analysis. The illustrative example is descriptive in nature, and thus, does not possess
empirical validity.

Originality/Value: The main contribution of the study is the explicit transfer of important aspects of the market
orientation literature to the business model development phenomena and the strict integration of the customer
into the associated process. Thus, this study provides a customer-oriented framework on business model development
that supports the field’s conceptual progress. Furthermore, the study supports the normative debate in the
business model literature.