Tactical Shapeshifting in Business Modeling

Walter van Andel


Business model tactics; institutional tensions; bottom-up architecture


This paper looks at ‘bottom-up’ architecture firms. These firms focus on co-production and participation, as they develop designs that stimulate social change. As such, they are placed in a hybrid position between citizens and governments. The paper identifies four ‘business model tactics’ they utilize in maneuvering between different institutional fields.